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Environment Science part is covered in the Biology syllabus. You can select your desired chapter from the list and start your learning. As previously stated, Environment Science part is covered in the Biology syllabus. So we have total three subjects in Science subject, Physics, Chemistry and Biology. The first unit has total five chapters. The first chapter is about the chemical reactions and equations in which we will learn about how to write chemical equations and balance them.
Also, we will learn about the various types of chemical reactions. In the second chapter, we will learn about the various types of acids, bases and salts and their reactions with metals and non-metals. The third chapter will take us to the world of metals and non-metals where we will learn about their properties and reactions among them. In the fifth chapter, we will learn about the classification of elements and their evolution.
The Second unit consists of four chapters that are from sixth to ninth. The sixth chapter is about the various life processes which human need for their survival. In the seventh chapter, we will talk about the parts of the human body which are engaged in control and coordination activities.
The eighth chapter deals with reproduction activities in unicellular and multicellular organisms. The ninth chapter, we will learn how the offsprings look alike. The third unit is How things works which have four chapters. In the tenth chapter, we will learn about light and its phenomena reflection and refraction in a detailed manner.
The twelfth chapter deals with the electricity in which we will learn electric circuit and resistance. In the thirteenth chapter, magnetic effects of electric current and its applications.
The fourth unit has three chapters in it. The fourteenth chapters talk about the various sources of energy such as conventional and non-conventional sources. The fifteenth chapter is about our environment in which we will learn about the eco-systems, food chains and how human activities contribute in degrading its quality.
The last chapter is about the conservation of natural resources. Chapter 1 - Chemical Reactions and Equations The chapter has total 20 questions. The first three questions are of objective type.
The question number sixth, seventh and eight is of balancing the equation types questions. Rest are short answer questions. Chapter 2 - Acids, Bases and Salts The exercises contain total fifteen questions of which first four are of objective type.
In the fifth question, we have to write balanced equation of the given reactions. Remaining questions are of short answer type. Chapter 3 - Metals and Non-Metals There are total 16 questions in the chapter. First four questions are of objective type. Remaining questions are of short and long answer type. Chapter 4 - Carbon and its Compounds There are fifteen questions in the chapter. A system of naming that large number of atoms nomenclature is also taught.
Soaps and detergents are studied with their chemical structure and properties. Their difference is also discussed. The detergents are used for cleaning purpose in hard water. Chapter 5 - Periodic Classification of Elements There are known elements found till date. It is better to study each elements in proper way.
For this we need to classify them in an order.
If categorized in order, we can easily predict some trends in physical and chemical properties of elements. Therefore scientists worked to arrange all elements such that alike elements can be placed in certain rows and column. But, this methodology did not worked for every element. Only three triads can be detected. In , John Newlands, tried to arrange elements. Newlands Octave was another method to classify elements. In this every eighth element will show property of first element if placed in order of atomic mass.
It was similar to musical notes where first node is similar to eighth. It also failed as it was not able to work for more than 56 elements.
Another method was adopted by Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev arranged the elements based on their atomic masses. He observed that when the elements were arranged in increasing order of their atomic masses, there was a periodic recurrence in their physical and chemical properties.
It was much accurate than previous models.
It also had some demerits. Finally, modern periodic came into existence. Atomic number was considered to be criteria for classification.
Elements with same group have same number of outermost electron. Elements in same period have same number of outermost shell. A particular increase to decrease in certain pattern can be predicted.
Many such trends are studied in this chapter. Chapter 6 - Life Process Life processes are various activities performed by living beings for sustaining the life. Such processes are digestive system, respiration system, circulation system etc. All these things are important to leave. The thing is to consume food through digestive system, perform oxidation of food which involves the process of respiration, and transportation of food and water which is done through circulation.
This chapter starts with process of nutrition. The process in which an organism takes in food, utilizes it to get energy, for growth, repair and maintenance, etc. Other modes of nutrition are autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition which are discussed in chapter. Autotrophic nutrition is done by plants by photosynthesis.
Heterotrophic nutrition is done by animals. Different types of Heterotrophic nutrition are discussed. Parasitic Nutrition, saprophytic Nutrition and Holozonic Nutrition are different types of heterotrophic nutrition. Cellular nutrition is done by unicellular organisms which has been discussed in this chapter. Next topic is nutrition by human beings. It starts with mouths which include salivary glands, tongue and teeth. The food goes to stomach through oesophagus. The food goes to stomach.
Liver secretes greenish yellow liquid called bile juice. Pancreas lies behind the lower portion of stomach. It secretes pancreatic juice which contains many digestive enzymes. All such processes are discussed in this digestive system. Next is respiration. The process of respiration involves: a Gaseous exchange i.
Breathing: Intake of oxygen from the atmosphere and release of CO2. And b Cellular respiration: Breakdown of simple food in order to release energy inside the cell. Both are discussed.
The human respiration system is discussed with some special attention. Pharynx ,bronchio lungs, diaphragm are different elements of human respiratory system. Mechanisam of process involves inhale and exhale. Both are explained. Circulation involves the process of transportation of food and other materials from one place to another. The blood is pumped through heart and transported through veins. So, all of them are discussed. Different components of blood are discussed-Red blood cells and White blood cells.
Four chambers of heart are discussed. In plants, We have discussed earlier how plants take in simple compounds such as CO2 and photosynthesise energy stored in their chlorophyll-containing organs, namely leaves.
The other kinds of raw materials needed for building plant bodies will also have to be taken up separately. For plants, the soil is the nearest and richest source of raw materials like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals. The absorption of these substances therefore occurs through the part in contact with the soil, namely roots. It has been discussed in details. The biological process involved in the removal of these harmful metabolic wastes from the body is called excretion.
Different organisms use varied strategies to do this. It is discussed in details for human beings. Chapter 7 - Control and Coordination System Earlier, we had started with a notion we all have, that if we see something moving, it is alive. Some of these movements are in fact the result of growth, as in plants. A seed germinates and grows, and we can see that the seedling moves over the course of a few days, Control and coordination are the functions of the nervous system and hormones in our bodies.
The responses of the nervous system can be classified as reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages. The nervous system gets information from our sense organs and acts through our muscles. Chemical coordination is seen in both plants and animals. Hormones produced in one part of an organism move to another part to achieve the desired effect.
A feedback mechanism regulates the action of the hormones. Chapter 8 - How do organisms reproduce? Reproduction, unlike other life processes, is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism. It involves creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process. Various organisms use different modes of reproduction depending on their body design such as fission, fragmentation, regeneration, budding, spore formation and vegetative propagation.
Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a new individual. Modes of sexual reproduction allow for greater variation to be generated. Reproduction in flowering plants involves transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination followed by fertilisation. The male reproductive system in human beings consists of testes which produce sperms, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis. The female reproductive system in human beings consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina.
Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm in the vagina of the female. Fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube. Chapter 9 - Heredity and Evolution We have seen that reproductive processes give rise to new individuals that are similar, but subtly different.
We have discussed how some amount of variation is produced even during asexual reproduction. Heredity and evolution deals with the fact — the long-term consequences of the accumulation of variations. The fact of sex determination in newborn individual is completely solved.
Evolution can be worked out by the study of not just living species, but also fossils. Complex organs may have evolved because of the survival advantage of even the intermediate stages. Changes in the non-reproductive tissues caused by environmental factors are not inheritable indicates about different traits like Acquired and Inherited.
Speciation may take place when variation is combined with geographical isolation.
Evolutionary relationships are traced in the classification of organisms. Study of the evolution of human beings indicates that all of us belong to a single species that evolved in Africa and spread across the world in stages. Chapter 10 - Light: Reflection and Refraction Light is source of energy which generates sensation of vision in human beings. In this chapter first reflection of light is discussed. Reflection is governed by its laws. The chapter is concerned with laws of reflection.
Here we are basically concerned with the spherical mirrors. After that image formation by spherical mirrors are discussed. The different types of spherical mirror, convex and concave are taught. The various terms related with spherical mirrors like centre of curvature, radius of curvature etc, focus, pole etc are discussed with ray diagrams. Uses of spherical mirror has been discussed in chapter.
Mirror formula is the way to relate object distance, image distance and focal length of mirror. Magnification is the ratio of size of image by size of object. This is related to ratio of image distance and object distance. Distances are majored from pole of mirror. Sign convention is kept in mind to find relative distances of image and object. Refraction is the phenomena of bending of light when light travels from one medium to another. The phenomena of refraction can be understood easily by the concepts of refractive index and optical density.
This is better explained by an example of rectangular glass slab. This example is dealt. After that concept of Lens is explained.
It is transparent medium bounded by refractive index. Types of Lens —converging and diverging is discussed. Example of converging lens double convex lens and diverging double concave lens.
Image formation and terminology is discussed for both convex and concave lens. Lens formula relates focal length of lens with image distance and object distance. Magnification is related with image and object distance. Sign convention is kept in mind. Power of lens is also discussed. Numerical based on lens formula and mirror formula are to be solved.
Chapter 11 - Human Eye and colorful world Human eye, its components, are discussed.
The process of by which human eye can see objects is discussed. The ability of the eye to focus on both near and distant objects, by adjusting its focal length, is called the accommodation of the eye. The smallest distance, at which the eye can see objects clearly without strain, is called the near point of the eye or the least distance of distinct vision.
For a young adult with normal vision, it is about 25 cm. Defects of vision is discussed with their corrective measures using suitable ray diagrams. The common refractive defects of vision include myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia. Myopia short-sightedness — the image of distant objects is focussed before the retina is corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power.
Hypermetropia far-sightedness — the image of nearby objects is focussed beyond the retina is corrected by using a convex lens of suitable power. The eye loses its power of accommodation at old age. The splitting of white light into its component colours is called dispersion.
Scattering of light causes the blue colour of sky and the reddening of the Sun at sunrise and sunset. Chapter 12 - Electricity Electricity is required for many thing around us. What is electricity? It is phenomena related to flow of charge. The concept of electric current and electric potential difference voltage is taught. Flow of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current.
Conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of flow of electrons. The SI unit of electric current is ampere. To set the electrons in motion in an electric circuit, we use a cell or a battery. A cell generates a potential difference across its terminals.
It is measured in volts V. Resistance is a property that resists the flow of electrons in a conductor. It controls the magnitude of the current. Ohms Law, which establish relationship between potential difference and current is discussed. Concept of resistance and resistivity is studied.
Resistance is property of any conductor to resist flow of current. The resistance of a conductor depends directly on its length, inversely on its area of cross-section, and also on the material of the conductor. Resistance of conductor having unit length and cross section is defined specific resistance. Series and parallel combination of resistors are discussed. In series current is same and in parallel potential difference is same across resistors.
The unit of power is watt W. One watt of power is consumed when 1 A of current flows at a potential difference of 1 V. The commercial unit of electrical energy is kilowatt hour kWh.
Chapter 13 - Magnetic effects of Current In this chapter relationship between magnetism and electricity is discussed. At first some basics of magnetism is discussed with magnetic field lines. A compass needle is a small magnet.
Its one end, which points towards north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which points towards south, is called a south pole.
Magnetic Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field line is the path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move. The direction of the magnetic field at a point is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take.
The denser magnetic field lines indicate more magnetic field strength. After that, magnetic field due to current carrying conductor is discussed.
A metallic wire carrying an electric current has associated with it a magnetic field whose direction is given by right hand thumb rule. An electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire. A current-carrying conductor when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force.
Phenomena related to this are explained.