Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37(7): · September with 2, Reads Sensitivity and specificity of SCQ with cut-off score of 15 in different ages Sensitivity Download full-text PDF. PDF | Purpose of Review The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screener for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) validated for age +. There is a clinical need for Download full-text PDF. Available via license. The SCQ is a parental-report Autism screening tool developed to serve as a practical You can download and learn more information about the SCQ here.
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Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) . research/devpsych/ download/valrlulytiver.cf . Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder valrlulytiver.cf downloads/valrlulytiver.cf The mean SCQ score of children with autism was , . The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a. item, parent-report symptomatology associated with autism spectrum disorder. (ASD). The items are .
Animal Sessions. Animal sessions consisted of two guinea pigs and animal-related materials presented to children for unstructured interaction time.
Three animal sessions were selected for video coding from the set of sessions in which all three participants from a given group were present, including 1 the first session, 2 the last session, and 3 a randomly selected session from the remaining sessions. The two guinea pigs were the current classroom pets, which lived in the classroom for the duration of the eight-week AAA program.
The total sample of animals included 30 guinea pigs ranging in age from four to eight weeks at the start of the program. Guinea pigs were housed in same sex pairs two per classroom for the duration of the study to prevent breeding and provide social enrichment for the animals.
Animal-related materials in each session included guinea pig food e. Video Recording. All toy and animal sessions were video recorded for later coding.
The video camera was positioned approximately 15 feet in front of the session materials on a tripod, with the focal length adjusted to closely frame all participants. It was monitored and adjusted by a research assistant, in order to ensure that participants were in view at all times.
Behavioral Coding Sampling. Six sessions three with toys and three with animals were assessed for each participant group sessions total. The first 10 minutes of each selected session were isolated for coding. In toy sessions, the 10 minutes started upon presentation of the toys, at the moment in which the sheet covering the toys was removed.
In animal sessions, the 10 minutes started upon presentation of the animals, at the moment in which the first guinea pig was removed from the fenced area in front of participants. Within each minute segment, three minutes were selected for coding minutes total using a timed interval sampling procedure .
We replicated the protocol enlisted in previous HAI research  by coding one minute from the first third, one minute from the second third, and one minute from the last third of each session. Minutes within each third were randomly selected. Two independent, blind observers were trained in the coding procedure.
Observers were blinded to the study aims, design, hypotheses, analyses, and outcomes. The primary coder was a psychology graduate student with extensive experience in behavioral coding of children with ASD. The secondary coder was a psychology undergraduate student. Behavior Coding System. It was developed based on previously published behavioral codes of children with ASD in the classroom setting  ,  ,  and children with ASD during interaction with animals  — .
It includes codes for social behaviors, including verbal, visual, and physical approaches. It also includes codes for prosocial behaviors, problem behaviors, and emotional displays. Social behaviors are primarily coded for participants with ASD, but targeted social approaches from TD peers are also coded. The definitions of each behavioral code are detailed in Appendix S1. The OHAIRE coding system involves coders rating the presence or absence of each behavior during second intervals of a selected minute.
Each interval is watched twice in succession. On the first viewing, behaviors of the target participant with ASD are coded. The resultant score for each behavioral code is the number of second intervals within a minute, in which the behavior occurred. In order to reduce data entry error associated with paper-based collection instruments, behavioral codes were recorded on an iPad through an internet-based OHAIRE coding program designed on Qualtrics Online Survey Software.
We also checked for differences on potentially confounding demographic variables, including age, gender, and pet ownership status.
Independent samples t tests were conducted for continuous variables i. In order to account for the nested study design i.
HGLM, or generalized linear mixed modeling, offers an effective procedure for nested, longitudinal, non-linear, and non-normal data . For most models, we conducted the standard HGLM for count data by specifying a Poisson distribution sampling model with a log-link function .
For outcome variables with overdispersion, we specified a negative binomial sampling model with a log-link function . We conducted a series of four-level HGLMs, where the levels reflected repeated measurements Level 1 , individual effects Level 2 , classroom effects Level 3 , and school effects Level 4. Random effects in the model were identified as the repeated measures effect of time to account for correlations between repeated observations of the same participant as well as intercepts at the individual-level to account for variance across individuals , classroom-level to account for correlation between individuals in the same classroom , and school-level to account for correlation between classrooms within the same school.
We addressed our primary hypothesis by including the fixed effect of session type toy or animal. Delayed diagnosis is common, although the use of array-CGH and SNP-array analyses in routine clinical practice, together with greater recognition of the syndrome in the last decade, has led to earlier diagnosis [ 27 ].
Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioural problems that are challenging for both parents and professionals. These problems include sleep disturbances, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviours, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders [ 28 ].
A thorough investigation of aggressive behaviours of a cohort with SMS showed that self-injurious behaviour, physical aggression and destructive behaviour were all significantly more prevalent in persons with SMS compared with a cohort of persons with IDs of mixed aetiologies [ 29 ].
In this study, A progression of autistic-like behaviour has also been described in young children with SMS [ 20 ]. In addition to the study by Laje [ 19 ] mentioned earlier, two other studies have looked at gender differences in SMS [ 19 , 30 ]. In an animal model study, Huang et al. Edelman et al. Measuring ASD in genetic syndromes is fraught with some difficulties.
Individuals with known genetic syndromes are usually excluded from the standardisation of ASD assessment tools, and it is known that degree of intellectual disability influences these tools [ 31 ].
Additionally, it is recently documented that the commonly used ASD assessment tools are highly influenced by parent-reported behavioural and emotional problems [ 32 ]. In the SMS population with its varying cognitive abilities and high rates of behavioural problems, it is therefore important to control for these factors when making claims about ASD symptomatology. The main aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in rates and profile of ASD symptoms in SMS when controlling for rates of emotional and behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour as a proxy for developmental level.
Based on previous research and our own clinical experiences, we hypothesised that the usual increased rate of ASD symptoms in males the male bias would be absent in a sample of individuals with SMS. Both organisations spread information regarding the study via their Facebook sites and email lists. Frambu, which is one of nine publicly funded centres of expertise administered by the Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Rare Disorders, has its own register, which is based on informed consent.
Frambu could therefore send invitations to registered families with a child or an adult with a diagnosis of SMS.
The Swedish families were recruited through the Swedish Smith-Magenis Foundation both through information via their Facebook site and through information at their annual gathering. The only inclusion criterion was a genetically confirmed diagnosis of SMS.
The diagnosis was confirmed by review of the genetic testing reports. The parents and the patients above the age of 16 provided written consent to participate in the study. A total of 11 came from Sweden and 17 were from Norway all the Norwegian patients were recruited through Frambu. The level of ID was derived from a review of the medical charts.
The levels of ID were collected from these charts. There was a wide variety as to who administered the test, with what instrument and at what age the level of ID was established.
The mean age was The intellectual disability ID level was available from medical charts; seven of the patients did not have ID. It seems that more females had lower levels of ID, but this gender difference was not significant asympt. The SCQ was used to assess the number of autism symptoms [ 33 ].
The questionnaire is used from the age of four. Both versions give a single total score, where a score of 15 or above is regarded as an indicator of possible ASD. The SCQ are also scored in three different domains: the reciprocal social interaction domain, communication domain and repetitive domain. In this study, the SCQ-Lifetime questionnaire was used [ 34 ].
Rutter et al. The Social Responsiveness Scale SRS is a item, quantitative parent-reported or adult self-reported measure that assesses social impairment associated with ASD [ 37 ]. The SRS enquires about specific and observable elements of reciprocal social behaviour 39 items , social use of language 6 items and behaviour characteristics of children with autism and other PDDs 20 items , and it generates a standardised score.
Recently, in a large sample of idiopathic ASD, the SRS scores were shown to be influenced by rates of behavioural problems [ 32 ].
Since the SRS T score norms are different for males and females, we chose to use raw scores in addition to T scores when comparing the genders.
The Developmental Behaviour Checklist DBC [ 38 , 39 ] is a questionnaire completed by parents or other primary caretakers or teachers that report problems over a 6-month period. In this study, the DBC-P was used. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II VABS II [ 40 , 41 ] is a semi-structured interview or rating form of the parents or caregivers that assesses the everyday behavioural functioning of children and adults from birth throughout life.